Causes & Risk Factors of Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is the second most common type of cancer among both men and women, and it’s the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The American Cancer Society states that a man's lifetime risk of developing lung cancer is about 1 in 16, while a woman’s is 1 in 17.
What causes lung cancer?
Lung cancer forms when changes (mutations) occur in the DNA of previously healthy lung cells. DNA is essentially a set of instructions that tells cells how to develop, reproduce and survive. These instructions can go haywire when cellular mutations occur, resulting in cells that rapidly divide and survive longer than they should. And instead of functioning normally, these cells accumulate, bind together and form cancerous tumors in the lungs.
Lung cancer risk factors
A risk factor for lung cancer is anything that may increase a person’s likelihood of developing this condition. Through dedicated research, scientists have identified numerous lung cancer risk factors.
Lung cancer risk factors you can change
While some of these factors can’t be changed, others can be reduced through healthy lifestyle adjustments. These avoidable risk factors include:
Smoking is unquestionably the leading risk factor for lung cancer. Approximately 80-90% of all lung cancer deaths are thought to be caused by smoking. Cigarettes contain a toxic blend of more than 7,000 chemicals, including a number of carcinogens, and smoking introduces those toxins into the lungs.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), cigarette smokers are 15 to 30 times more likely to develop lung cancer or die from the disease than people who do not smoke. Smoking also increases the risk of getting other cancers, including throat, esophagus, stomach, colon and kidney malignancies, among several others.
While a person’s lung cancer risk goes up with the number of cigarettes they smoke per day and the number of years they have smoked, their risk can go down if they are able to stop smoking. Individuals who want to quit smoking and improve their lung health are encouraged to speak with a doctor about effective quitting strategies and to receive individualized guidance.
Exposure to secondhand smoke
People who do not smoke but are frequently around those who do also have a higher risk of lung cancer. Inhaling another person’s toxic cigarette smoke is known as secondhand smoke exposure, and it is essentially as harmful as smoking a cigarette yourself. Staying away from people while they smoke can help reduce secondhand smoke exposure and lower your risk of lung cancer.
Radon is an odorless, naturally occurring gas that is found in soil and rocks around the world. It is normally present in low levels outdoors, but can collect in large amounts inside houses and buildings through floor cracks, construction joints and gaps in foundations. Prolonged radon exposure is currently recognized as the second leading cause of lung cancer.
Inhaling asbestos over the course of several years may increase the risk of lung cancer. Asbestos is a naturally occurring group of minerals that was once frequently used in various building materials for its resistance to heat and corrosion. While government regulations established in the 1980s have reduced the risk of prolonged asbestos exposure, workers in the construction, firefighting, mining, shipbuilding and military industries may still have some level of exposure.
Crystalline silica is a mineral that’s naturally found in sand, soil and stones, as well as in man-made materials such as bricks, concrete and mortar. The most common type of crystalline silica is quartz. When airborne silica (for example, quartz dust) is inhaled, it can penetrate deep into the lungs and lead to the development of lung cancer. Although quartz dust is most commonly inhaled in industrial settings, the general population may still be exposed to it when using commercial products containing quartz, including certain cosmetics, cleansers and art materials.
Exposure to diesel exhaust
Diesel—a type of fuel made from crude oil—is commonly used in large engines, such as those in ships, trains, trucks, buses, construction vehicles, farm equipment and generators. Many studies suggest that heavy, long-term exposure to diesel exhaust can lead to the development of lung cancer. Although many people inhale relatively small amounts of diesel exhaust when driving on highways, the individuals who are most at risk include those who are exposed to it on a daily basis at work.
There is still much to understand about the link between diet and lung malignancies, but taking beta carotene supplements has been linked to increased likelihood of developing lung cancer, particularly among smokers. Eating a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease lung cancer risk, but this connection is still being studied.
Lung cancer risk factors you can’t change
Some risk factors for lung cancer are outside of your control, such as:
Lung cancer isn’t generally considered to be a hereditary condition, but a person may have an increased risk of disease if their parent, sibling or child has lung cancer. This may be attributed to families often living in similar environments and being exposed to the same substances.
Previous radiation therapy
Having a history of receiving radiation therapy to the chest to treat a previous diagnosis of Hodgkin disease, breast cancer, a separate case of lung cancer or another condition can increase the risk of developing lung cancer in the future.
Does smoking marijuana cause lung cancer?
Although it’s well known that smoking tobacco can lead to the development of lung cancer, many people question whether marijuana (commonly referred to as “pot” or “weed”) can also cause lung cancer. Researchers are still working to answer this question—while some studies have found that heavy, regular marijuana use could increase a person’s risk of developing respiratory cancers, others have not identified a connection between marijuana use and an increased risk of lung cancer.
It’s important to note that aside from a possible connection to lung cancer, smoking marijuana poses many other health concerns. For example, studies have suggested that smoking marijuana can lead to inflammation of the large airways, increased airway resistance, lung hyperinflation (which occurs when air becomes trapped within the lungs), greater vulnerability to respiratory infections and various other issues.
Does vaping cause lung cancer?
Many people also wonder whether vaping can cause lung cancer. Given the relatively recent popularization of e-cigarettes, no one yet knows what long-term effects they may cause, and researchers are still working to determine whether vaping can increase a person’s risk of developing lung cancer. With that being said, many e-cigarettes contain dangerous chemicals that have previously been associated with a higher risk of lung cancer, including formaldehyde.
Lung cancer prevention
While it’s impossible to guarantee the prevention of lung cancer, there are certainly steps you can take to minimize your risk. Since most of the lung cancer risk factors outlined above are within your control, you can take action to eliminate as many of them as possible.
Common lung cancer causes & risk factor FAQs
Do you still have questions about lung cancer causes or risk factors? If so, browse some of the most frequently asked questions on this topic:
- Is emphysema a risk factor for lung cancer?
- Is non-small cell lung cancer caused by smoking?
- What are the causes of adenocarcinoma lung cancer?
- How does smoking cause lung cancer?
- How does lung cancer start?
Get the lung cancer help you need at Moffitt Cancer Center
It’s important to note that not everyone who smokes or comes into contact with one of the carcinogens above will develop lung cancer. There’s still much to be learned about the way the condition develops, and at Moffitt Cancer Center, we’re proud to be leading the way in lung cancer research. We not only conduct a wide range of clinical trials and lab studies, but also use our findings to shape the way in which we treat our patients. For these efforts, we’ve been named a Lung Cancer Center of Excellence by the National Cancer Institute.